Index F - O

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A - E   P - Z 


Family Planning (Birth Control, Contraception)
         ABM Clinical Protocol #13: Contraception During Breastfeeding, Revised 2015 
        La Leche League InternationalUpdate on Family Planning

       Lactation Amenorrhea Method (LAM
         The Lactation Amenorrhea Method (LAM) for postpartum contraception 
         World Alliance for Breastfeeding Advocacy: LAM 
    Patient information 
        • Breastfeeding and Family Planning – Texas WIC 
        • Birth Control and Breastfeeding (KellyMom Website) (Edited 2016)       
         • Breastfeeding and Fertility (KellyMom Website) Edited 2016) 
        • Spanish information: 
            Alba Lactancia Materna: Lactancia y Anticoncepción 

    24 Hour Cribside Assistance    
  Fathers Can Support breastfeeding 
    La Leche League International – Fathers and Breastfeeding 
    Texas WIC Class for Prospective Fathers - Men and Breastfeeding 
    Information for partners (Australia)     
    What can Dad Do? (
English)  ¿Qué puede hacer papá? (Spanish
    World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA): Men’s Initiative     

    Breastfeeding Blog for Dads by a Dad  
        Babywearing – Dad’s perspective 
        5 Reasons Dads love Breastfeeding  
        Discovering Baby-Led Feeding 
        Breastfed Baby on Board – flying with a baby 

   What can fathers do with their babies?  Exercise!
        See these videos: 
            Baby and Dad Fun Workout at Home 
            Dad and Baby Fun Workout at Home            
            Baby Workout - lose those pounds Dad Style 
            Dad'n'Daughter Workout    

    Fathers handout from Texas WIC: Just for Dad

Breastfeeding: What's a Dad Supposed to Do?(2008) 14 Min – $60

Formula Preparation

        Mayo Clinic: 7 Steps to Safe Infant Formula Preparation  
        WIC – handouts for ready to feed, concentrate and powdered formula 
        World Health Organization (WHO): Guidelines for the safe preparation, 
            storage and handling of powdered infant formula (PDF

        See “Bottle Feeding” for new instructions on bottle feeding babies
            to reduce their risk of obesity and refusal to breastfeed

Frenulum pictures and assessment: (also see "Tongue Tie") 
    Brian Palmer DDS:  
Historical website with many slides and pictures       
        Tongue Tie:
Morphogenesis, Impact, Assessment and Treatment 

Assessment of posterior tongue tie
            Glove demonstration of the frenotomy
        Assessment, surgery and post-surgical care – captions, no voice.  
            Useful for education of professionals, but not for most parents. 
            (Dr. Lawrence Kotlow, DDS)

Frequency of Breastfeeding
Volume and Frequency of Breastfeedings and Fat Content of Breast Milk Throughout the Day 
            Pediatrics Vol. 117 No. 3 March 1, 2006 pp. e387 -e395 (doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-1417)
    Additional Resources:  
      American Academy of Pediatrics Section on  Breastfeeding 
Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocols 


Galactogogues :

     Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol (2011):  
        Use of Galactogogues in Initiating or Augmenting the Rate of Maternal Milk Secretion 

    Frank J. Nice, MS, MPA, DPA 
        Common Herbs and Foods Used as Galactogogues (2011)
        Selection and use of Galactogogues (2015)       

     Examples of non-prescription Galatogogues (mom should still discuss with Health Care Provider):
        Food and herbs as Galactogogues:
            La Leche League International: Breastfeeding Today 
                Galactogogues (2015) 
            National Center for Biotechnology Information 
            Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine: Systematic Review of Breastfeeding and Herbs
                Breastfeed Med. 2012 Dec; 7(6): 489–503. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2011.0122 
            Traditional foods vary among different countries, but have not been thoroughly studied.  
                 See "LowDog, Dr. Tieraona: The Use of Botanicals During Pregnancy and Lactation")

Gastric Bypass Surgery
    Update to the Breastfeeding Answer Book:          
    Patient handout on Gastric Bypass Surgery is available to ILCA Members in “Inside Track”    

    Clinical Lactation Journal Article: Breastfeeding after Weight Loss Surgery

        Just for Grandparents  (English) (Spanish)   
Grandmother's Tea Project  (Illinois) 
                Full activity plan to provide grandmothers a fun way to learn why and how to help 
                        their grandbabies' mother breastfeed.

Gromada,Karen : Twins information by the author of Mothering Multiples


Haberman Feeder: to be used for babies with difficulty feeding - cleft palate, low tone, etc.

Hale, Thomas PhD  -
Medications and Mothers’ Milk
        Infant Risk Center    Founded in 2011 by world-renowned researcher Thomas Hale, Ph.D., R.Ph., 
        the InfantRisk Center is dedicated to promoting research, education and public service pertaining 
        to medication safety for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. To achieve this mission, the center 
        conducts groundbreaking perinatal pharmacological research, trains post-doctoral fellows and 
        offers consumer resources, such as the InfantRisk Center Hotline and mobile applications, 
        to inform moms and health care providers about a variety of medications.  

Hale Publishing: As of 2016 Inventory is limited.  Many books now sold through Praeclarus Press or 
        by the individual authors (i.e. Nancy Mohrbaker's Breastfeeding Answers Made Simple)

Hand Expression
     Stanford Medical Center Videos
        Hand Expression for preemies 

        Maximizing milk production with hands on pumping pumping production
     Hand expression (UK): 
    The Basics of Breast Massage and Hand Expression (Maya Bolman and Ann Witt)

    Jane Morton Resources:  
Hand Expression:  
Hands on Pumping:  
        Bilingual materials (English-Spanish): 
Hands On Pumping  
Hand Expression

California Department of Public Health:         

California WIC:         
            Guide to Breastfeeding: (
English) (Spanish)
   Common Sense Breastfeeding 

    Lactation Education Resources
             Lactation Education Resources provides comprehensive online lactation 
            consultant training for those who wish to become eligible for 
            IBCLC certification. We are dedicated to providing high quality online 
            lactation management training and innovative educational materials 
            for professionals and for new parents online and onsite.

    Philadelphia handouts: 
                My Breastfeeding Plan and other handouts in many languages
Solano County Handouts:    
            Word documents are large, may take 2 minutes to download - but you can edit them.  
            PDF documents are quicker to download, but are harder to edit.

  • Breastfed Babies Grow at Their Own Pace - English (Word)   (PDF)  Spanish (Word)  (PDF)
  • Breastfeeding REDUCES Stress - English (Word) (PDF)  Spanish (Word) (PDF)
  • Breastfed Babies Travel Easily - (English) (Word) (PDF)     Spanish (Word) (PDF)
  • Doctor's Day 4-Fold Card - Word
  • Cue Based Bottle Feeding (PDF)  (English only)
  • Father's Day Card - (English) (Word) (PDF)     Spanish (Word) (PDF)
  • Gift Boxes - English (Word)  (PDF)   Spanish (Word) (PDF)
  • Look At Your Baby: Breastfeeding is More Than Eating
    (English) (Word) (PDF)  Spanish (Word) (PDF)
  • Moving and Eating - English (Word)  (PDF)  Spanish (Word)  (PDF)
  • Thanksgiving Day Card - (English) (Word) (PDF)     Spanish (Word) (PDF)
  • Valentine's Day Card - (English) (Word) (PDF)     Spanish (Word) (PDF)               

    Texas Department of Public Health: English      Spanish  

    US Department of Health: 
    English    African American      Spanish

        Womanly Art of Breastfeeding Tear Sheet Toolkit
        • Laid-back breastfeeding and other ideas 
        • Diaper log 
        • Waking a sleepy newborn 
        • Feeding cues 
        • Feeding the non- latching baby 
        • It isn’t just about the milk 
        • Door sign (hospital or home)

Health-e Learning (Internet lactation education) 

    On-line education leading to meeting the requirements to become an IBCLC and 
    maintain certification. Initiated by Denise and Steve Fisher of Brisbane, Australia, 
    now managed by Dr. Lenore Goldfarb and Carole Dobrich of the 
    International Institute of Human Lactation Inc. based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Health Care Provider's Pocket Guide (New York - July, 2010):

Healthy People 2020 
Breastfeeding Objectives

Hepatitis B and C and Breastfeeding
        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:    

: (Also see "Galactagogues")    

        Use of Herbal Remedies During Pregnancy and Lactation  (Infant Risk Center)

        Mechell Turner;


        Galactic Herbal: 

     Birth and Beyond California Hospital Breastfeeding Quality Improvement Project:
         Presentations for: 1) Hospital administrators, 2) Quality Improvement, 3) Staff training

       Hospital Administrator Training: (to meet the requirements of SB22)               

   Hospital Policies 
     California Model Hospital Policies    

      Baby Friendly USA Hospital Policies
      Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Sample Hospital Policy (2010): 

      American Academy of Pediatrics Sample Hospital Policy: Tools for Clinicians (2008?)

Hospital Infant Feeding Act:
California Health & Safety Code §123366
    Resources and information to meet the requirements: (go to CA Dept. of Public Health Webpage)
Human Milk Banking Association of North America


      The Ten Commandments of Breastfeeding   

Humor, Health & Hugs.   Carol Schlef, RNC, MSW, IBCLC, LCCE

Hygeia Breast pumps and other products 

Hypotonia: Babies with low tone who may have difficulty with breastfeeding
        Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol #16 
Breastfeeding the Hypotonic Infant


IllnessCDC Recommendations related to Breastfeeding and Illness
              Over-The-Counter Treatments for Cough and Cold (Infant Risk Center) 
        (Also see  "Medications" in this Index)

Induced Lactation (See "Adoption" and "Relactation")
        Four Friends (Adoptive Breastfeeding Website): 

Infant feeding in Emergencies

Infant Feeding Policy for Hospitals
    Resources and information to meet the requirements of the 
    California Health & Safety Code §123366 (
Hospital Infant Feeding Act)
Infant Risk Center:  Founded in 2011 by world-renowned researcher Thomas Hale, Ph.D., R.Ph., 
    the InfantRisk Center is dedicated to promoting research, education and public service 
    pertaining to medication safety for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. To achieve this 
    mission, the center conducts groundbreaking perinatal pharmacological research, trains 
    post-doctoral fellows and offers consumer resources, such as the InfantRisk Center Hotline 
    and mobile applications, to inform moms and health care providers about a variety of medications.

Insufficient Glandular Tissue
                Kellymom website
      Supporting mothers with mammary hypoplasia (La Leche League International)

            • Additional resources for mothers with low milk production: 
                    o Defining your Own Success: Breastfeeding After Breast Reduction Surgery (Diana West)  
                    o The Breastfeeding Mother's Guide to Making More Milk (Diana West and Lisa Marasco) 
International Baby Food Action Network 

International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes (UK Resources)

International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) 
    Mission:  To advance the International Board Certified 
        Lactation Consultant (IBCLC) profession worldwide through leadership, advocacy, 
        professional development, and research through leadership, advocacy, 
        professional development, and research
         • Lactation Matters (ILCA Blog): 
        •Find a Lactation Consultant
        • Webinar Calendar

International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners (IBLCE) 
        “IBLCE establishes the highest standards in lactation and breastfeeding care 
            worldwide and certifies individuals who meet these standards”

Inverted Nipples - See "Nipples, Inverted" 


Phototherapy to Prevent Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn Infant 35 or More Weeks of Gestation
        Results are based on the Hour-Specific Nomogram for Risk Stratification published in 
        "Management of Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn Infant 35 or More Weeks of 
            Gestation" (2004) by the AAP journal. 

        You will need details such as:
         * Baby's birth date and time or hours of age
         * Current Total Bilirubin (be careful your are entering the result using unit of measure posted, or change it if necessary).  

The Joint Commission: An independent, not-for-profit organization, 
        The Joint Commission accredits and certifies nearly 21,000 health care organizations and programs 
        in the United States. Joint Commission accreditation and certification is recognized nationwide as a 
        symbol of quality that reflects an organization’s commitment to meeting certain performance standards.

     TJC Urges Mothers to "
Speak Up" in hospitals – posters and handouts in English and Spanish
        The Joint Commission accredits and certifies more than 19,000 health care organizations [hospitals] 
            and programs in the United States:  


Breastfeeeding Medicine (Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine)

    International Breastfeeding Journal

    Journal of Clinical Lactation          
        Free access to members of USLCA.  Sign in through the USLCA Website

    Journal of Human Lactation       
        Free access to  members of ILCA; sign in through the ILCA Website

    Journal of Pediatrics  (from Mosby)  

    Pediatrics (Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics)


Kangaroo Mother Care 
     A great deal can be said ABOUT KMC ... but in these few pages I want to provide a practical approach. 
    For more detailed information about the science and clinical knowledge ABOUT KMC 
    ... see our parallel site
Skin to Skin Contact.  

Kathleen Kendall-Tackett:   offers a forum for sharing current and noteworthy research on the mind-body 
        connection and how it relates to cardiovascular disease; diabetes; trauma and PTSD; depression in 
        new mothers; and breastfeeding.

Katherine Dettwyler, PhD   Thoughts on Breastfeeding 
Letter in support of breastfeeding mothers – Court 
A Natural Age for Weaning 
        Other authors' work on the topic -
Full-Term Breastfeeding    

Kelly Mom: This website was developed to provide evidence-based information on breastfeeding and parenting. 
        I am the mother of three lovely children, and I am an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant 
        (IBCLC). I hope that my articles are helpful and encouraging. (Also has facebook pages)



LactAid at-breast supplementor

Lactation Matters (ILCA Blog):

Laid Back Breastfeeding (also see
Biological Nurturing)
    La Leche League International Handout 

LaLeche League International (LLLI) 
    Our Mission is to help mothers worldwide to breastfeed through mother-to-mother support, 
    encouragement, information, and education, and to promote a better understanding of 
    breastfeeding as an important element in the healthy development of the baby and mother.

    La Leche League of the United States   
    LLL Northern CA & HI
    La Leche League of Solano County

Lactation Accommodation Law: (also see "Working Mothers" and "students")
California Labor Code Section 1030-1033           
Minimum requirements in California          
             Filing a complaint with the California with the
Department of Industrial Relations 
        Federal and other states: 
              Federal Lactation Accommodation Law
               State by State Lactation Accommodation Laws
        California Education Code Related to         
                Lactation Accommodation in California Public Schools                 
                (Added by Stats. 2015, Ch. 690, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2016.) 
                Facts About Lactation Accommodation in California Public Schools

Lactivist, Lactation Activist – (Facebook page)  
        Initiated by a mother who was told not to breastfeed in public,  
        but now addresses other situations.


LactMED:  Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) - UPDATED MONTHLY
                The LactMed® database contains information on drugs and other chemicals to which 
                breastfeeding mothers may be exposed. It includes information on the levels of such 
                substances in breast milk and infant blood, and the possible adverse effects in the 
                nursing infant. Suggested therapeutic alternatives to those drugs are provided, where 
                appropriate. All data are derived from the scientific literature and fully referenced. 
                A peer review panel reviews the data to assure scientific validity and currency. 
Lactnet: On-line dialogue among Lactation experts and newbies.   
            To subscribe: send an email to
[email protected]   
            Place “subscribe Lactnet” in the subject line
            When participating, search Lactnet 
Archives  for the topic prior to posing a question.

            Lactnet - Facebook - Must request to join the Facebook page

LactSpeak: This is your one-stop destination when you need a professional speaker for 

Late Preterm Infant Feeding guidelines - University of California at San Diego

Laws Related to Breastfeeding 

California Laws related to breastfeeding 
California Women's Law Center (CWLC):  Since its founding in 1989, the (CWLC) has served 
                    as a unique advocate in California, working in collaboration with others to protect, 
                    secure and advance the comprehensive civil rights of women and girls. 
                    CWLC prides itself on forging novel approaches to the problems that confront 
                    women and girls, proposing unique strategies to implement those approaches, 
                    and recasting issues in new terms.

Breastfeeding Works   Resources from Breastfeed LA team

California Work and Family Coalition:
                    The California Work & Family Coalition is an alliance of community organizations 
                    unions, non-profits, and individuals dedicated to helping parents, caregivers, 
                    and families thrive

    Federal Law related to breastfeeding: 
             Workplace Support Laws List of
state-by-state laws impacting lactating employees. 
         US Breastfeeding Committee - Legislation and Policy  
             National Conference of State Legislatures -
Breastfeeding Laws
             Six Key Laws For Parents: (English) (Spanish)

Love, Susan MD (Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation
(search breast-feeding)

LowDog, Dr. Tiranna : 
The use of Botanicals During Pregnancy and Lactation

Low Milk supply:
         See "Insufficient Glandular Tissue"
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Connection to Insufficient Milk Supply?
     Delayed Lactogenesis II Secondary to Gestational Ovarian Theca Lutein Cysts   
            J Hum Lact 2002; 18:3 264-268 

        Counseling mothers with low milk supply: 
The Risk of Invalidating the mom who says she has no breast milk         

     See "Herbs" and "Galactogogues" 


March of Dimes: Breastfeeding: 
    March of Dimes

Effects of Marijuana on the Fetus and Breastfeeding Infants (Infant Risk Center)

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine 
        Clinical Protocol 4: 
Mastitis (revised 2014) 
        Clinical Protocol 20:
Persistent Pain with Breastfeeding (2016)
    American Family Physician: 
Management of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women

Medela - Breast pumps and other breastfeeding tools
    Currently not WHO Code Compliant.
    See complete list of
compliant and non-compliant companies.

    California Department of Public Health:
Medications and Breastfeeding Handout on “Medications and Breastfeeding”              
LactMed – National Library of Medicine 
Link to free iPhone or Android app

    Infant Risk Center - Founded in 2011 by world-renowned researcher Thomas Hale, Ph.D., R.Ph., 
        the InfantRisk Center is dedicated to promoting research, education and public service 
        pertaining to medication safety for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. To achieve this 
        mission, the center conducts groundbreaking perinatal pharmacological research, 
        trains post-doctoral fellows and offers consumer resources, such as the InfantRisk Center Hotline 
        and mobile applications, to inform moms and health care providers about a variety of medications.
        Hotline: Monday – Friday, 8am – 5pm CT: (806) 352-2519

    For questions that are not in books or website 
Medications and Breastfeeding: Current Concepts (2012) 
        Nice, FJ and Luo, AC. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2012;52:86–94.

    Non-Prescription, over-the-counter medications:        
        Frank J. Nice, RPh, DPA, CPHP  
Over the Counter Treatments while breastfeeding  (Infant Risk Center, 2014)      

    Poster on
Radio-contrast materials: (See also Radiological Tests in Index)

Mental Health: 
    California Department of Public Health -
Maternal Mental Health and Breastfeeding      
    Dr. Kathleen Kentall-Tackett: 
Evidence-based, With Attitude 

MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus      
MRSA Information: (Infant Risk Center):       
            “It appears that colonization from mother to child due to close contact may be as prevalent            
            as transmission via the mother’s milk. Until more is known about the transmission of MSSA               
             and MRSA, there is no substantive reason to withhold breastmilk from mothers who are               
             carriers of MSSA or MRSA.

Michels, Dia L.   
Platypus Media -- Books for Families, Teachers and Parenting  Professionals

Midwives Alliance of North America (MANA)  

MIHA The Maternal and Infant Health Assessment, or MIHA, is an annual, statewide-representative 
    survey of women with a recent live birth in California. MIHA collects self-reported information 
    about maternal and infant experiences and about maternal attitudes and behaviors before, 
    during and shortly after pregnancy. Read more about how MIHA data are used to guide public 
    health programs and services to improve the health of mothers and infants in California. 

Mohrbacher Nancy

    Videos - Natural Breastfeeding

Mother’s Milk Bank at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA      
    Call their toll free number, 1-877-375-6645, for a quick telephone interview.     
    Their nurses and Spanish speaking Lactation Educator will provide the packet
    of forms and answer any questions. Once they receive the completed
    paperwork, they will send you to get a free blood test.

mPINC: Breastfeeding Hospital Data: Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care 

Multiple Birth (Center for the Study of )


National Alliance for Breastfeeding Advocacy (NABA)

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine:

National Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition  

National Institute of Health (NIH):
    Breastfeeding Challenges: How to Find Support for Common Problems

National Women’s Health Information Center   

Nipples: Inverted              
      Many mothers are told they have inverted nipples when they are not.            
        Picture of
inverted nipples when pressed on either side of the areola:               
La leche League on Inverted Nipples
     Some mothers who truly have inverted nipples can wear a tool such as an 
Evert-It Nipple Enhancer          
            during pregnancy.  As it fills with milk, it is usually not helpful after delivery. 
    After delivery, excessive fluid in the mother's body may make it appear as if she had inverted nipples.           
        Using Reverse Pressure Softening can make the areola and nipple soft and supple           
         so baby can form a nipple. Handout (
English) (Spanish

Nipple Blebs, or “milk blisters” appear on the end of nipples.               
    Tissue covers the pore of the duct and milk gathers behind it.               

    Prevention: obtain assistance to assure adequate latch at first sign of nipple pain during breastfeeding           
    Handouts and websites   
                La Leche League International:
Dealing with plugs and blebs                  
Nipple Blebs         

                At times, treatment is not effective. Refer physician to the following study:                      
                    Abstracts from The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine                      
                    17th Annual International Meeting Chicago, Illinois October 11–14, 2012:                      
                    A CASE SERIES (must log-in to view this
PDF document)

Nipples (sore) -       
    Summary of
treatment for sore nipples (Marsha Walker, Clinical Lactation, 2013)
    Healing sore nipples - La Leche League International webpage:

Nipple pain and color changes - Raynaud's?   
Raynaud's Phenomenon of the Nipple:  American Academy of Pediatrics  
            Pediatrics, April 2004, VOLUME 113 / ISSUE 4
Nipple blanching and Vasospasm (Kerllymom)

Nipple shields     Tools at times used to help baby back to the breast after bottle feeding, or assist mother in latching           
    after being assisted and evaluated by an IBCLC:    
    Instructions on how to apply: (
English)  (Spanish

Nutrition and the Pregnant and Breastfeeding Mother     
Choose My Plate\          
Nutrition and Physical Activity Program - MCAH California Department of Public Health

Nursing strike - 
    Help - my baby won't nurse   
    LLLI FAQ on Nursing Strikes


Implications of Obesity in Breastfeeding Women    
    Lactation Complicated by Overweight and Obesity: Supporting the Mother and Newborn 
Obese mothers require close follow-up:       
    Breastfeeding Initiation: Impact of Obesity in a Large Canadian Perinatal Cohort Study  
        Maternal obesity is associated with a two-fold rate of non-initiation of breastfeeding. 
        Considering the benefits of breastfeeding and the increasing obesity rate, adapted 
        interventions and specialized support should target both pre- and immediate 
        post-natal periods in this population. 

    (See "Gastric Bypass Surgery")

Oral Health Program, California Department of Public Health      
    Also see: "Cavities, Early Childhood Caries (ECC)"

Block feeding dos and don'ts      
Oversupply syndrome  (Forceful letdown and oversupply syndrome)  
    Overabundant milk supply: an alternative way to intervene by full drainage and block feeding